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Legal Nurse Consultant




211 Beaumont
Michigan MI 49690

Tel: (800)





(800) 968-4637 

Independent Medical Evaluations, Inc.

A National Company Providing
Comprehensive IME Medical Legal
Services In All 50 States



FORAMINA COMPRESSION TEST: An increase and radiation of pain into the arm upon performing this test will indicate_narrowing-of, cervical intervertebral foramen, can (may/will) be caused by subluxation or cervical disc involvement. Persistence of this condition can (may/will) result in tension in the neck and across the shoulders and numbness and/or weakness of the arms and hands, and can (may/will) progress into deterioration of the intervertebral disc, arthritis, and atrophy of the muscles 


REFLEXES: This test is positive when the reflex is greatly exaggerated or absent. Each reflex tests specific muscles
Bicep C5—C6 innervated by specific nerves. Abnormal reflexes can indicate nerve pressure or irritation which if not Tricep C6—C7 corrected may lead to muscle tension, numbness, weakness, loss of coordination or even muscle atrophy. Radial C6—C8 Patellar L2—L4 Achilles S1—S2


DYNAMOMETER GRIP TESTS: Average strength difference between primary:and secondary hands is 15 to 25 for
G-men-and-5--to -15 for-women. A marked variation of these averages or a declining scale of primary or secondary hand strength is a positive sign of muscle weakness and nearly always involves subluxation with nerve root pressure or irritation in the lower cervical spine. If not corrected, can (may/will) progress into shoulder, arm, and hand pain, loss of mobility, numbness, and even muscular atrophy.


Upper extremity C5—T1/Lower extremity Ll—SI
This test is positive when either an increased or decreased sensitivity is detected along one arm and/or thigh and leg in comparison to the opposite side. This response whether confined to a localized area or extending the full length is indicative of intervertebral foramina compression, nerve root irritation or damage to the nerve itself. This can/ will be caused by subluxation, disc involvement, or neurovascular compression syndrome. Persistence of this condition may progress into nerve deterioration, arthritis, and atrophy of the muscles involved.


MINOR'S SIGN: This sign is often observed in patients with low back conditions in which supporting the low back is necessary in order to rise from a seated position. This test is indicative of sciatica, sacro-iliac lesions, lumbosacral lesions, and/or disc involvement.


BILATERAL LEG LOWERING: Test is positive if legs drop or low back pain is produced, and indicates compression of lumbo-sacral or lumbar disc. Complications suggested could be the same as those indicated in positive Goldthwait or Braggard tests.

LEG DROP: Positive if patient experiences low back pain. This is indicative of lumbar, lumbo-sacral or sacral disc involvement. Persistence of this condition can cause pain in legs, weakness, loss of motion, muscle atrophy, numbness, sciatica and/or arthritis.
FABERE—PATRICK'S TEST: Test is positive if patient unable to perform this test or if pain occurs on performance, and indicates possibility of hip joint lesion or sacroiliac lesion. If cause is not corrected, can (may/will) lead to hip joint deterioration and pain in walking.

GAENSLEN'S TEST: Test is positive if pain occurs in the sacro-iliac area indicating a sacroiliac lesion. If this lesion persists it can cause low back and leg pain, weakness, loss of motion, muscle atrophy, numbness and/or sciatica.


LASEGUE'S TEST: If patient is unable to perform this test, or if it produces pain in the lower back, the test is positive and indicates disc lesion. If the pain should occur in the opposite hip it is known as "Lasegite Contralateral Sign". Sciatica is indicated if test produces low back pain when superior iliac crest is held down, fixing pelvis. Possible complications, when not corrected, can (may/will) advance into weakness, loss of motion, constipation, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, and leg pain. Further complications include numbness in legs, atrophy, sciatica, arthritis, and/or impotency.

BRAGGARD'S TEST: If this test causes pain it is indicative of sciatic nerve involvement. In this case pain usually radiates down the back of the buttock, thigh and in extreme cases, calf and bottom of the foot. This test indicates a disc lesion or subluxation ranging from fourth lumbar vertebra down to the third sacral segement.

GOLDTHWAIT'S TEST: If pain appears before spine begins to move, sacro-iliac involvement is indicated. If pain appears only after lumbar spine begins to move, lumbo-sacral involvement is indicated. In either case, this can be due to subluxation, sprain, arthritis, and/or disc involvement.

SOTO—HALL TEST: ,This test puts a progressive pull on the posterior spinous ligaments. When the spinous process_of _the_misaligned or injured vertebra is reached, pain or discomfort will occur. This indicates possibility of subluxation, spurring, disc lesions or vertebral fracture. Persistence of the problem can cause pain, arthritis, disc deterioration, muscle weakness, numbness, and/or atrophy of the associated muscles.

SPINOUS PERCUSSION TEST: This test is positive when pain is illicited upon tapping the reflex hammer over segmental vertebral spinous processes. Increased sensitivity indicates acute subluxation, intervertebral disc syndrome, bone pathology or fracture.

ELY'S TEST ( eel to Buttocks): If patient is unable to flex heel to buttock, or if hip raises off
--table on side being tested, the test is positive and indicative of lumbo-sacral lesion or hip lesion. Can be a sign of protruding or bulging disc. If lumbo-sacral or pelvic lesion persists, can cause pain in legs and low back, weakness, loss of motion, muscle atrophy, numbness, sciatica, varicose veins, impotency, and even arthritis.

BABINSKI SIGN: Test is positive if fanning of toes and dorsiflexion (bending up) of great toe occur.

ROMBERG'S SIGN: Test is positive if patient sways markedly. Positive test is indicative of possible spinal cord pressure and/or nerve root irritation in the upper cervical area. A positive Romberg is also considered indicative of tabes dorsalis, Meniere's disease, cerebral tumor, multiple sclerosis, etc. Accompanying symptoms of spinal cord pressure or nerve root irritation, when not corrected, can (may/will) cause blurred vision, loss of memory and concentration, depression, irritability, nervousness and fatigue, loss of sleep, lowered resistance, headaches, dizziness, and/or buzzing or ringing in ears.


KEMP'S SIGN: If pain radiates down sciatic nerve on side toward which patient is bending, it suggests a disc involvement: Disc involvement in the lumbar vertebrae can (may/will) also cause atrophy, varicose veins, impotency, nocturnal enuresis, numbness, abnormalities in gait, and/or low back pain or leg pain. Note anatomical location of pain (dermatome).

TRENDELENBURG'S TEST: If the superior iliac crest or gluteal fold drops on the side of raised knee during this test, there is a weakness in opposite hip, possibly from polio, muscular dystrophy, congenital dislocation, and/or subluxation. These conditions suggested by positive Trendelenburg can (may/will), if not corrected, progress into hip joint arthritis or degeneration, numbness, or weakness or atrophy of the hip and leg muscles. If the basic cause stems from subluxations of the lower lumbar vertebrae, atrophy, varicose veins, impotency, nocturnal enuresis, abnormalities in gait, and/or low back pain or leg pain can (may/will) result. If hip elevates, normalcy is indicated.

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The spine and nerve chart below shows that nerve interference at the spine can cause a loss of nerve control to any part of the, body. Listed below are a few of the many health problems which could be caused by the vertebrae, and the discs between them, producing pressure and irritation on nerves.
(Cl, 2, 3) 1. Headaches, tension, migraine, dizziness, sinus trouble,
pain in eyes, ears, and face, allergies, hay fever, etc., can
he callserl by spinal nerve pressure and irritation in this area.
(C4, 5) 2.) Nerve pressure and irritation in this area of the neck can produce neck pain and stiffness, nervousness, muscle tension, insomnia, throat and thyroid trouble, etc.
(C6, 7) Shoulder and arm pain and numbness, bursitis, poorcir﷓
culation in arms, swelling of hands, etc., may be produced if there is a misalignment of one or more spinal vertebrae here.
4. Asthma, difficult breathing, heart problems, high and low blood pressure, pleurisy, etc., can result from pressure and irritation on the nerves in this area of the spine.
5. If there is spinal misalignment in this area, the resultant nerve pressure and irritation may cause pain between shoulders, chest and rib pains, liver and gall bladder problems, shingles, etc.
(T6, 7, 8, 9) 6. Subluxation of one or more spinal vertebrae here can cause stomach, pancreas, and intestinal trouble, low blood sugar, indigestion, heartburn, gas, etc.
(T10, 11, 12, L1) 7. Colon trouble, constipation, kidney trouble, adrenal stress, etc., can be caused by spinal nerve pressure and irritation in this area.
(L2, 3) 8. The cause of backache, menstrual cramps, and other female disorders, impotency, sterility, bladder problems, bed-wetting, etc., may be pressure and irritation on spinal nerves in your low back.
9. 'Spinal nerve pressure and irritation in this part of your apine may result in low back pain, sciatica, pain and poor circulation in the legs, etc.
(Sacrum) 10. Hip, leg, knee, ankle and foot pain, muscle cramps, spinal curvature, etc., can be caused by a slippage of the sacrum.
Other conditions can be caused by nerve pressure and irritation at various areas of the spine, such as paralysis, muscle spasms and weakness, disc problems, neuritis, neuralgia, fatigue, arthritis.

Other conditions can be caused by nerve pressure and irritation at various areas of the spine, such as paralysis, muscle spasms and weakness, disc problems, neuritis, neuralgia, fatigue, arthritis, rheumatism, hormonal imbalance, etc.

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A misalignment of the vertebrae at the base of the skull will impinge Cl ' nerves leading to the face and head. The le:tull of this impingement Is cranial circulation producing central norvoua system problems, ear flcultks, headaches, high blood pressure, and allergy problems.
C4 A subluxated vertebra in the mid-neck ,is r a will cause pressure on c5, nerves leading to the throat region. Hoarsviess, Iaynpltis, sore throat 1 may be the result.
CO malpositroned vertebra in the tower neck and upper back area will Irri c the nerves leading to the throat, thyroid plant:, heart, and lungs. The resu this continued nerve Irritation Is thyroid malitwnction (toss of energy or i vousneas), kung problems (asthma, emphysema, difficult breathing, sh rams of breath, chest congestion), functional heart conditions, cheat p angina pectoris, bursitis, and swallowing difficulties.
A vertebra out of Its normal position between the shoulder blades will produce slight pressure on the nerves leading to the stomach, gall bled War, pancreas and small intestine. This inhrference with the normal n. supply to these organs may lead to pasted', ulcers. colitis, gas format difficult digestion, diabetes, low blood pit t sure, poor circulation, atht and anemias.
A iubluxated spinal segment in the mid-bt k will impinge upon the nei beading to the kidneys, adrenal glands. A continued nerve impinge will result in kidney disorders, loss ol energyy chornic tiredness, adrenal blame, hormonal Imbalance, allergies, high blood pressure, rheumatism, and arthritis.
When the vertebrae In the lower mid-back hive slipped out of place T12 result Is Interference with the normal nerr i supply to the large intesi fallopian tubes, and abdominal muscles (this interference is allow) continue gas pans, constipation, colitis, rut.lures, herneas, and some ty of sterility In women may be the result.
A displaced spinal segment in the waist-An •egion will produce preasun the nerves that control the bladder ant! iproductive organs. Susta pressure on those nerves may result In Im,o lined bladder control, bed ling, testicular pain, menstrual difficulties, mr'olency, and change of symptoms.
Whenever the vertebrae In the lower back ere misaligned, pressure on nerves controlling the bladder, rectum, muscl os and blood vessels of legs is the usual result. Constant pressure tut these nerves may cause circulation of the pelvis and legs, swollen r.nkles, weakness or cramps it legs, knee problems, urinary difficulties, and rectal malfunctions.




Independent Medical Evaluations, Inc. Corporate Office
IME, Inc.
Lee Plaza, 3881 M-72 East
Williamsburg, Michigan-MI, USA 49690
Phone: (231) 929-1474
Toll-Free: (800) 968-4637
Fax: (231) 929-4356
Email: info@imei.com

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